## ALGEBRA

Algebra is a study which deals with situations whereby some values unknown. Normally these unknown are represented by letters. Those letters are also referred to as variables.

Algebraic expression

An expression – is a mathematical statement which consists of several variables. An expression can only be simplified, that is we cannot find values of the variables (s) on it.

Examples

1. a + 2

2. x + 3y + 9z

3.16p – qp

4. a + b + c + d

5. 40

**An equation**

An equation is formed when two expression are joined by an equal sign

E.g

i) 2x – y = 16

ii) x + 2 = 6 – 5

iii) 3y + xy = 9

Each member of an equation or expression is called Term

**Coefficient**

When a number is multiplied by a variable (s) that number is called coefficient of that variable

**Example**

What is the coefficient of the variables in the following?

a) 6x – 8p + y

b) – k + 3d

c) 2a + 3b – c

**Solution**

**s**

Coefficients of a) x is 6

y is 1

P = -8

b) K = -1

d = 3,

= 1

c) a = 2

b = 3

c = -1

**Addition and subtraction of algebraic expression**

Addition and subtraction of algebraic expression can be done by adding or subtracting like term.

Like terms are those terms which has identical (same) variables

**Examples**

1. 2a + 4a = 6a

2. 5a + 16a = 21a

3. 2x + 10x – 3x = 9x

**Examples: simplify the expression**

3n – 7n + 12n

**Solution**

-4n + 12n

12n – 4n

∴= 8n

**Examples: simplify**

6m – 4 – 2m + 15

Soln

6m – 2m – 4n + 15

**= 4m + 11**

Example: simplify 4x + 6y – 3x + 5y

**Solution**

4x – 3x + 6y + 5y

= x + 11y

Coefficient: y = 11

x= 1

Number of terms = two

**Exercise 7.1**

1. Simplify each of the following expressions and after simplifying state

a. the number of terms

b. the coefficient of each of the terms

i) n + n + n + n + n + k + k + k + x + x = 5n + 3k + 2x

**Solution**

(a) There are3 terms

(b) Coefficient of “n” is 5

Coefficients of “y” is 3

Coefficients of “x” is2

ii) 3x + 4y – 7z + 3x – 7y + 2z

**Solution**

a) There are 3 terms

6x – 3y – 5z

b) coefficients of x is6

Coefficients of y is-3

Coefficients of z is-5

iii) 3x + 7x – x =

**Solution**

a) There is 1 term

b) Coefficient of x is 10

**Simplify each of the expressions in numbers 2 – 6**

2. 12m + 13m

12m

+ 13m

25m= 25m

3. 5y + 7y – 4y

12y – 4y

= 8y

4. 24w – 28w

-28w + 24w

= -4w

5. 15n – 9n

15n – 9n

= 6n

6. 4k – k + 3k

3k + 3k

= 6k

7. 8y – 3 – 7y + 4

8y – 7y – 3 + 4

y + 4 – 3

y + 1

=y+ 1

8. 14x + 8 – 3x + 2

14x – 3x + 8 + 2

=11x + 10

9. 3a – 5b – 7a + 6c + 7a + 8b

3a – 7a + 7a – 5b + 8b + 6c

=3a + 3b + 6c

10. 4x – 6y + 7x + 2y

4x + 7x – 6y + 2y

=11x – 4y

11. 3x + 4 + 8x – 4 – 11x

3x + 8x – 11x + 4 – 4

11x – 11x + 4 – 4

0 + 0

= 0

12. 8m + 0.4m – 2 – 6m + 8

8m + 0.4m – 6m – 2 + 8

8.4m – 6m + 6

= 2.4m + 6

**Multiplication and division of algebraic expression**

Example:1) Multiply a – 2b + 6ab by 12xy

**Solution**

(a – 2b + 6ab) x 12xy

= 12axy – 24bxy + 72abxy

**Examples:2)** Re – write without brackets

– 16a (-2mn + 9xb – 3kbc)

**Solution**

-16a (-2mn+9xb-3kbc) = (-16ax-2mn) + (-16a x 9xb) + (-16a x -3kbc)

= 32amn + -144axb + 48abck

= 32amn – 144axb +48abc

**Example:3)**divide 36xyz – 48xwz – 24xz by 12z

**Solution**

**(36xyz – 48xwz – 24xz)÷ 12z**

**Exercise 7.2**

**1. Complete the following**

60xy – 30y + 90z = 30 ( )

60xy – 30y + 90z = 30 (2xy – y +3x)

2. Simplify i) xy + yz + 2xy – 3zy

ii) 8m ÷ 2 + 3mn ÷ n

**Solution**

i) xy + yz + 2xy – zy⇒ xy+yz +2xy – zy = xy + 2xy +yz – 3zy

= 3xy – 2yz

ii) 8m ÷ 2 + 3mn ÷ n

4m + 3m

(4 + 3) m

=7m

**3. Simplify the following**

i) 5mn – 3mn

= 2mn

ii) xyz + 3xy + 4zx – zyx

= xyz – zyx + 3xy + 4zx

= 0 + 3xy + 4zx

= 3xy+ 4zx

iii) 3 (2n + 3) + 4 (5n – 3)

**Solution**

6n + 9 + 20n – 12

6n + 20n + 9 – 12

=26n – 3

iv) abc + bac – cab

**Solution**

abc + abc – abc

abc – abc + abc

abc + 0

= abc

v) 2 (5x + 3y) + 3(3x + 2y)

**Solution**

10x + 6y + 9x + 6y

10x + 9x + 6y + 6y

= 19x + 12y

vi) m (2n + 3) + n (3m + 4)

**Solution**

2nm + 3m + 3mn + 4n

2nm + 3mn + 3m + 4n

= 5mn + 3m + 4n

vii) x (y – 5) + y (x + 2)

**Solution**

xy – 5x + yx + 2y

xy + yx – 5x + 2y

= 2xy – 5x + 2y

ix) Pq -2qp + 3pq – 2qp

**Solution**

Pq + 3pq – 2qp – 2qp

4pq – 4pq

= 0

x) (4x + 8y) ÷ 2 + (9xw + 4xy) ÷ w

**Solution**

xi) Multiply 6a – 5b by 3x

**Solution**

3x (6a – 5b) = 3x x 6a – 3x x 5b

= 18ax – 15bx

∴= 18ax – 15bx

**Equations**

An equations is a mathematical statement which involves two expression connected or joined by an equal sign

So we define an equation also as statement of equality e.g. 2y – 6 = 3x + 12

The values of variables can be found in equation if the number of equations is equal to the number of unknown.

**FORMULATION OF AN EQUATION**

There are three steps to follow when formulating an equation which are;

i) Understand the problem/question, what it is asking for

ii) Let the unknown be represented by a variable

iii) Formulate the equation using the given information

**Signs, ****words or phrase used when formulating an equation:-**

+ Addition, sum of, increase by, greater than, plus, taller than, more than

** –** Difference, subtract, decrease, less than, shorter than.

× Multiplication, times, products.

**÷** Division, divided, Quotient.

**=** Equals, is, given, result.

**Example 01**

1. The age of the father is equal to the sum of the ages of his son and daughter. If the son’s age is thrice the age his sister, formulate an equation.

**Solution**

Let y be the father age

And x be the age of the daughter

The age of son = 3x

y= 3x + x

y = 4x

2. The sum of two numbers is 20. If one of the number is 8 formulate an equation.

**Solution**

Let one of the number be x

And the other number = 8

x + 8 = 20

3. A girl is 14 years old, how old will she be in x years time

**Solution**

A girl = 14 years

Let “y” be a girls age in x years time.

In years time = + x

∴y= 14 + x

4. The difference between 24 and another number is 16, form an equation

Soln

Let another number = x

∴ 24 – x = 16

**Exercise 7.3**

Formulate equations for each of the following

1. Five times a number gives twenty

**Soln**

5 x= 20

5x = 20

2. The difference between 123 and another number is 150

**Solution**

let another number = x

Then x – 123 = 150

∴ x – 123 = 150

3. The sum of 21 and another number is 125

**Solution**

let another number = y

Sum means (+)

21 + y = 125

∴ 21 + y = 125

4. When a certain number is increased by 15, the result is 88

**Solution**

Let the number be x

Then x + 15 = 88

x + 15 = 88

5. When 99 is increased by a certain number the result is 63

**Solution**

Let the number = y

Then 99 + y = 63

∴ 99 + y = 63

6. The product of 12 and another number is the same as two times the sum of 12 and the number

**Solution**

Let the number be x

Then 12 x x = 2 x (12 + x)

∴ 12x = 24 + 2x

7.A number is such that when it is double and 8 added to it, the result is the same as multiplying the number by 3 and subtracting 7.

**Solution**

Let the number be x

Then x + x + 8 = x x 3 – 7

2x + 8 = 3x – 7

8. When 36 is added to a certain number, the result is the same as multiplying the number by 5.

**Solution**

Let x be the number

Then x + 36 = x x 5

∴ x + 36 = 5x

9. If John is n years old and is 6 years older that James older, write an expression of the sum of their ages.

**Solution**

Let “J” be john, and “Q” be James and “N” be the year

Let Q = q years

J = n + 6 years

The sum of their age = q + n + 6

∴ = q + n + 6

10. When the sum of n and (n + 3) is multiplied by 5 the result half the product of the two numbers.

Write the expression of this statement:-

**Solution**

(n + (n +3) x 5 =½ (n + (n +3) )

(2n + 3) x 5 =½(2n + 3)

**SOLVING FOR EQUATIONS**

Solving means finding the value of the unknown in the equation

**Example 1**

1. x + 5 = 8

**Solution**

x + 5 = 8

x + 5 – 5 = 8 – 5

x + 0 = 3

x= 3

2. x – 8 = 15

x – 8 + 8 = 15 + 8

x= 23

3. 3x – 5 = 7

3x – 5 + 5 = 7 + 5

3x = 12

x= 4

4. + 3 = 12

**Solution**

multiply 2 both side

5. (3x – 2) = 10

**Solution**

6. = 2

**Solution**

=

8 1 = (3x – 2)

8 = 6x – 4

8 + 4 = 6x – 4 + 4

12 = 6x

=

x= 2

7. – = 4

**Solution**

2m = 4 x 15

2m = 60

m= 30

8. + = 5

**Solution**

10x = 5 x 8

10x = 40

x= 4

9. 2x – 5 = 3x – 8

**Solution**

3x-8=2x-5

3x-2x=8-5

x= 3

10. 4 – 3t = 0.3t – 5.9

**Solution**

4 + 5.9 = 0.3t + 3t

9.9 = 3.3t

9.9 = 3.3t

3.3 3.3

t = 3

11. +

**Solution**

Multiply by 8 both side

12. = – solve for x

**Solution**

= –

7

14x-7 = 9x

14x -9x =7

5x = 7

x =

** EXERCISE 7.4**

**Solve the following equations**

1. x + 12 = 25

**Solution**

x = 25 – 12

x= 13

2. =

x= 5

3. 2x + 12 = 25

**Solution**

2x + 12 – 12 = 25 – 12

2x + 0 = 13

4. x – 8 = 8

x– 8 + 8 = 8 + 8

x= 16

5. x = 55

**Solution**

X = 55

X = 25

6. 2x – 8 = 8

**Solution**

2x =8+8

2x = 16

=

x= 8

7. 3x – 3 = 15

**Solution**

3x – 3 + 3 = 15 + 3

∴x=6

8. – 3 = 5

**Solution**

9. 0.2x + 7 = 9

**Solution**

0.2x + 7 – 7 = 9 – 7

∴x= 10

10. 0.6x – 5 = 7

**Solution**

0.6x – 5 + 5 = 7 + 5

∴x = 20

11. + 3 = 5

**Solution**

12. 4x – 7= 7

**Solution**

4x = 7 + 7

4x = 14

=

13. = 14

**Solution**

14.

**Solution**

15. = 6

**Solution**

= 6 x 5

=

∴x= 10

16.

**Solution**

3x = 25 + 1

=

17. = 10

5 = 10x

2. 18.10

**Solution**

5 x 1 = 10 (x + 1)

5 = 10x + 10

5 – 10 = 10x

19.

**Solution**

1 (x + 5) = 3 (x – 1)

x+ 5 = 3x – 3

3 + 5 = 3x – x

∴ x = 4

20.

**Solution**

1 (x + 5) = 5 (x – 1)

x + 5 = 5x – 5

5 + 5 = 5x – x

**Solving word problems**

E.g. 1

If John has hundred shillings, how many oranges can be buy if orange costs 50 shillings?

**Solution**

Let k be the number of oranges John can buy but one orange costs 50shs.

50 x k = 200

K = 4

∴John can buy 4 oranges

**Example 2:**

A father age is 4 times the age of his son. If the sum of there is fifty years Find the age of the son.

**Solution**

Let the age of father be y

Let the age of the son be x

Therefore the age of the father is y = 4x

Their sum = 4x + x = 50

5x = 50

∴The son’s age is 10years old

**Example 3:**

The sum of 2 consecutive numbers is 31. Find the smaller numbers

**Solution**

Let the smaller number be x

Let the bigger number be x + 1

x+ x + 1 = 31

2x + 1 = 31

2x = 31 – 1

2x = 30

∴ The smaller number is 15

**Exercise 7.5 **

1. If 4 is added to a number and the sum is multiplied by 3 the result is 27. Find the number.

**Solution**

**L**et the number be ‘b’

(b + 4) x 3 = 27

12 + 3b = 27

3b = 15

b= 5

2. Okwi’s age is six times uli’s age.15 years hence Okwi will be three times as old as Uli. Find their ages.

**Solution**

Let the age of Uli be x

Okwi = 6x

Okwi Uli

6x x

6x + 15 x + 5

6x + 15 = 3x + 45

fifteen years to come

6x + 15 15 + x

Then 6x + 15 = 3(x + 15)

6x + 15 = 3x + 45

6x – 3x = 45 – 15

3x = 30

x = 10

Okwi = 60 years

Uli = 10 years

3 . The sum of two consecutive odd numbers is 88. Find the numbers

**Solution**

Let the number be n

n + 2, n + 4

n + 2 + n + 4 = 88

2n + 6 = 88

n = 41

The smaller number = 41 + 2 = 43

The bigger number = 41 + 4 = 45

4. Obi’s age is twice Oba’s age. 4 years ago Obi was three times as old as Oba. Find their ages.

**Solution**

Oba’s age let it be x

Obi Oba

2x x

2x – 4 x – 4

2x – 4 = (x – 4) 3

2x – 4 = 3x – 12

8 = x

Obi = 16 years old.

Oba = 8 years old.

**Inequalities in one unknown**

The following rules are useful when solving inequalities

i) Adding or subtracting equal amounts from each side does not change the inequalities sign

Example : solve x – 2 ≤ 4

**Solution**

X – 2 + 2 ≤ 4 + 2

X ≤ 6

Example 2: 2x + 4 ≥ 16

2x + 4 – 4 ≥ 16 – 4

≥

X ≥ 6

ii) Multiplying or dividing by same positive number each side change the inequality sign

Example: solve 3y + 16 < 50

3y + 16 – 16 < 50 – 16

,

Example 2:(2x – 4) ≥ 9

(2x – 4) ≥ 9 x 3

2x – 4 + 4 ≥ 29 x 3

≥

X ≥ 3

iii) Multiplying or dividing each side by negative number CHANGES the inequality sign.

Example. Solve the inequality

((4 – 3x) < 4

**Solution**

2 (4 – 3x) < 4 x 3

2 () <

4 – 3x < 6

-3x < 6 – 4

The sign changes

Examples 1: Solve -4x + 3≥

-4x + 3≥

-4x ≥ -3

-4x ≥ –

÷ -4

x ≤

Examples 2. solve

Find their L.C.M

3 > x 4

3 (2x – 6) 4 (3 – 2x)

6x – 18 > 12 – 8x

6x + 8x > 12 + 18

X >

**BINARY OPERATIONS**

Is an operation denoted by *, which describe the formula of a given variables.

if P * q = 5pq – p: Find

i) 2 * 3 =

p = 2 and q = 3

2 * 3 = 5 (2) (3) – 2

= 30 – 2 = 28

2 * 3 = 28

ii) (1* 2) * 3

(1 * 2) = p = 1 and q = 2

In (1 * 2) = 5 (1) (2) -1 = 9

=10-1

=9

∴1∗2=9

9 * 3 = p * q

9 * 3 = 5 (9) (3) – 9

= 135 – 9

= 126

(1 * 2) * 3 = 126

iv) (2 * 1) * (3 * 2)

**Solution**

2 * 1 = p = 2 and q = 1

5 (2) (1) – 2

2 * 1 = 10 – 2

= 8

3 * 2 = p = 3 and q = 2

5 (3) (2) – 3

15 x 2 – 3

3 * 2 = 30 – 3

3∗2= 27

2 * 1 = 8

3 * 2 = 27

8 * 27

8 * 27 = p = 8 and q = 27

5 (8) (27) – 8

40 x 27 – 8

1080 – 8

Then: 8 * 27 = 1072

(2 * 1) * (3 8 2) = 1072

iv. if (t * 5) = 50 find t

t * 5 = p = t and q = 5

t * 5 = 5 (t) (5) – t

15t – t

24t=50

t * 5 = 24t

= =

t =