Form 5 General Studies (GS) Study Notes General Studies (GS) Study Notes Msomi Maktaba All Notes


This can be defined as a political, economic, diplomatic and culture relation among the nation.

–  Political relation; Is the cooperation whereby the two or more independent state share ideas above political matters.

–  Economic relation; Is the situation whereby two or more independent states share economic activities e.g. International trade. There are four forms of economic relations. These are free trade area, customs union,common market and economic union.

–  Diplomatic relation; Is the level of international relation whereby different embassies are involved in structuring political, economic, social and cultural matters within their home countries and the lost countries.
A diplomat is a person who officially represents his/her own country in a foreign country. 

–  Cultural relation; among the nations can be started in various form like the exchange of dances troops, theater groups, Musician and also sports and games. e.g. through world cup, UEFA, Kagame Cup, FA Cup etc. different nations come together and compete. This situation develops strong culture relation.


Foreign Policy is the system established or formulated by a country in order to maintain its regular political, social and economic interaction with other states in the world. The interaction is made by diplomatic who represents their representative country. The main task for diplomats or ambassadors is to make sure that social, culture and economic activities of their home countries are globally known and to prepare a tripe for the countries ruler.


Like other countries in the world, Tanzania has formulated the system of foreign policy to maintain regular political, social and economic affairs.

–   Tanzania foreign implemented and managed by the Ministry of foreign affairs and international relation.

–  Tanzania foreign policy is a policy of Non Alignment.


  1. Promotion of independence of all other African states.
  2. Maintenance of its freedom by determining domestic and foreign policy.
  3. Promotion of international cooperation and understanding through organization such as UNO, AU, and NAM.
  4. Promotion of world peace and order through UNO, AU, and others international organization.
  5. Promotion and maintenance of human rights and democracy in the world.


Reasons for Tanzania choosing the policy of Non Alignment

  1. To avoid unnecessary international conflicts.
  2. To maintain sovereignty on deciding international issues without being forced by bigger states.
  3. To choose friends regardless the influence of either of the block i.e. U.S.S.R and U.S.A.
  4. To strengthen international cooperation and understanding.


How Tanzania foreign policy is implemented.

Tanzania foreign policy is implemented by the Ministry of foreign Affairs and international cooperation through the Embassies or high commissions.
The main task of diplomats or Ambassadors is to make sure that social, cultural and economic activities of their home countries are globally known.
These diplomats or Ambassadors are also responsible in making  prior preparations to facilitate trips of national top leaders like president in their respective countries. These diplomats include the following;

A diplomat: Is a person who officially represents his/her country in a foreign country. The highest diplomats are known as ambassadors or ambassadresses, high commissioner and consul
An Ambassador/ambassadress – Is a government official representative living in a foreign country to conduct  business with that most country on behalf of his/her home country. The office of an ambassador or ambassadress is known as an Embassy.

A high commissioner: In common health countries, Such representatives (ambassador/ambassadress) are known as high commissions. The offices are termed as high commission

A consul: A consul on  the other hand is a representative of a town  or city to help country men living or visiting there. The consul’s office is called consulate.

How Tanzania foreign policy is implemented.
The following ways show how Tanzania implements her foreign policy.
(i) Tanzania has established diplomatic relations with different countries and has officials and ambassador in those countries so as to popularize her social, economic and cultural endowment as well as   promote co-operation.

(ii) Tanzania receives diplomatic official from different countries with their offices in Tanzania.

(iii) Tanzania has established relations with international organizations eg. UNO, Commonwealth, Au etc.
(iv) Tanzania is the member of the UN as it acknowledges the objectives and principle of the UN charter accord for the equality of all states and dignity of man.
(v) Tanzania has established regional and economic co-operation such as the EAC and SADC so as to secure genuine and equitable regional economic and infrastructural integration  

Function of Ambassadors or high Commissioners:-

  1. To represent Tanzania abroad.
  2. To popularize Tanzania‘s natural, social and cultural resources.
  3. To register and assist Tanzanians who lives abroad.
  4. To made preparations for facilitating trips of Tanzanians leader in foreign countries.


  1. Bilateral cooperation


–  This is a type of cooperation which involves the agreement between two states E.g. Tanzania and Zambia in running TAZARA. In this co-operation there is no specific or common ideology governing the undertaking of the member countries

–  Countries involve in this cooperation can agree to cooperate in various areas such as economic, cultural, scientific and technological researches, political, security and defense.

2.Multilateral Cooperation:-
This is the types of Cooperation which involve group of many countries like regional inter grouping such as S.A.D.C, E.A.C, and COMESA, NAM, AUetc. Multilateral cooperation is sometimes known as regional multilateral integration.

Importance of multilateral co-operation.
(i) The country gets aid and loans from friend nations with minimum nationalities or restrictions.

(ii) Promotion of both internal and external peace. The country is assured of security assistance from friendly nations and Tanzania participates in solving problems of other countries.

(iii) Improvement of transport and communication. Tanzania is able to improve transport systems across the borders due to friendly relations with the neighboring countries. For example, though Tanzania
Mozambique Friendship Association (TAMOFA). Tanzania has been able to construct Mtwara Bridge in association with Mozambique.

(vi) Economic development has also been achieved through friendly relations with other countries. Investors from friendly states come and invest in Tanzania and thus contribute to the economic development of Tanzania

(v)  International repute to Tanzania

(vi) Industrial development in various sectors due to private investors from friendly nations and the presence of market in those friendly states.

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