Form 5 General Studies (GS) Study Notes General Studies (GS) Study Notes Msomi Maktaba All Notes


Sustainable Development.
Meaning: It is the development that meets the needs of present generation without compromising/endangering the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.

Indicators of Sustainable development;
(i) Development that sustain institutions, improves justice and ennglish-swahili/courage” target=”_blank”>courages participation
(ii) Development that ensures basic needs, equality and employment opportunities.
(iii) Development that maintains genetic diversity which maximum productivity

The role of sustainable development in building quality of life.
(a) Sustainable developments leads to improved access to social to social services, improved awareness an the environment and development concerns as well as development of sensitive culture.
(b) Sustainable development leads to increased employment opportunities.
(c) Sustainable development contributes to conservation of resources. Hence, there is proper utilization of resources.
(d) Sustainable development creates awareness on how to use resources for development with caution without compromising the future generation rights.

The role of science and technology in development:-

(a) The role of science and technology in the development and improvement of modern industries and provision of social services.

1. Improving agriculture, food and nutrition. E.g In fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and herbicides, mechanization. There is food security because of presence of raw materials.

2. Modernizing the industrial sector. This raises the quality and quantity of our goods in a short time.

3. Increasing the speed used by reducing time taken to accomplish a task. Science and technology has played a great role in this . E.g The use of tractors in cultivation makes the work to be completed fast compared to the person who uses the hand hoe.

4. Quickening and facilitating communication. Due to the development of science and technology, communication has been quick because of improved roads, use of cellular phones, radios, newspaper and television.

5. Increasing knowledge through the provision of advanced education using latest teaching materials. Audio – visual teaching materials such as televisions have been used to facilitate teaching and learning process. This has been used to facilitate teaching and learning process. This has influenced the improvement of education.

6. Environmental conservation: It is through applying appropriate technology and modern methods of production. Appropriate technology is the technology which is based on using local resources like utensils such as pots as well as use of simple but useful implements and pesticides ), manure in agriculture, ashes (instead of insecticides and pesticides), crop rotation, mulching contour farming, optimal domestication as well as a forestation.

7. Improvement of health services : This is through the use of the modern machines / equipment like x – rays, ultrasound diagnosis. Also, there is improvement of health living and working conditions preventive measures against health disorders and contemporary curative measures and vaccinations.

8. Improving of domestic services: sciences and technology has providing modern water storage systems, modern water pumping systems and water purification. This has led to increased water supply in town ,, villages and cities.

(b) The role of science and technology in sustainable development.

(i) Maintenance of the productive capacity of the country especially where non – renewable resources such as minerals are exhausted.

(ii) Preservation of stock resources /row materials e.g Minerals, forests, clean air, etc, by use of measures like afforestation, recycling.

(iii) Preservation of the environment especially the biosphere against pollution .

(iv) Science and technology increases social and economic interation.

(v) It simplifies and facilities work in terms of speed and efficiency by using advanced devices and appropriate technology.

(c ) The role of government in promoting the development of science and technology in our country.

(i) Formulation of good polices. Formulation of good policies that ennglish-swahili/courage” target=”_blank”>courage people within in the country to be innovative and creative E.g adherence to the protection of intellectual property , motivating innovators, and special training to scientists. All these shall ennglish-swahili/courage” target=”_blank”>courage people to engage in scientific activities.

  1. To ennglish-swahili/courage” target=”_blank”>courage local technical crafts. E.g Some of handicraft industries led by local people are highly skilled and produce goods of high quality. They can make different materials like machine guns, fire arms, spray machineries, bird traps, agricultural tools like hoe, bush knives, etc. Tanzania should ennglish-swahili/courage” target=”_blank”>courage these people by giving them support they require.

(iii) To ennglish-swahili/courage” target=”_blank”>courage the use of tools which are manufactured by local people rather than encouraging foreign goods which cause stagnation to our technology e.g Vocational Training Authority (VETA) and (Small Industrial Development Organization (SIDO) produce quality goods. But people tend to ignore goods made from SIDO or VETA. Therefore, Tanzania should change this behavior.


(iv) To train as may scientists as possible . Many scientists should be trained based on practical skills of making tools instead of making maintenance and copying technology. This will promote science and technology in Tanzania since engineers and scientists will be able to make tools on their own.

(v) Tanzania has to reduce excessive technological dependence on foreign countries. This can be done through promoting and encouraging local technology which is appropriate to the people‘s daily activities and ennglish-swahili/courage” target=”_blank”>courage the use of products made by indigenous crafts men.

(vi) Motivation to scientists. The government has to motivate scientists by facilitating them with necessary capital, equipment and special care. This will help them to feel considered and hence they will stay in country instead of leaving Tanzania in search for greener pastures .

(vii) Good allocation of resources in science and technology. There should be good allocation of both budgetary funds and human resources in sciences and technology sector.

Transfer of technology

(a) Transfer of technology refers to the term used to describe the process by which technological knowledge moves within or between organizations. OR Technology transfer is the movement of scientific knowledge and methods of production from one country to another where that knowledge/method did not exist before.

Types of transfer of technology

Transfer of technology can be either internal (Domestic) or international. Internal transfer of technology is when technology moves within the country or within organizations.

International transfer of technology on the other hand refers to the way in which this transfer of technology occurs between and / or among countries.

The transfer of technology can assume various forms. It can be in goods (E.g physical goods, plant and animal organisms), services and people, organizational arrangements, or in codified in technical documents and/or through various types of training.

(b) The means by which science and technology is transferred from developed world to the developing countries .

                 (i) Through training nationals abroad. In this components, countries send workers abroad for the aim of increasing efficiency in work places. When they are learning, they imite several scientific knowledge and skills and bring the acquired knowledge to their respective countries.

 (ii) Through importing foreign experts who come with their foreign technology. In order to import new technology, countries attract foreign experts to come and work in a host country. People who work with them observe and imitate what foreigners do. Through this transfer of technology, they imitate or gain access of new technologies. This is done by copying from creators or any other persons who perform different tasks such as operating of machines making machines, etc. here people observe and acquire knowledge and skills of performing those activities.

              (iii) Through industrial espionage . This means that a person is imitating without being permitted by the owners of the said technology.

            (iv) Through turn – key operations. The buyer enters into contract with a supplier, say, to build and construct or undertake a task that involves little participation of local institutions e.g KAJIMA, STRABAG, etc.

           (v) Through licensing of technology and agreement which allows receipts to employ technology acquired from abroad.

(c) The advantages of relevant and appropriate technology for the development of the countries.

(i) Transfer of technology has led to the improvement of social services. Transfer of technology has helped different social services such as education, health services such as medical services to be provided. E.G Use of devices such as x – ray machines, computer and others which are used in the social services sector.

  1. Transfer of technology has influenced the availability and use of modern tools for production. Hence, there is increase in production in both agriculture and industry because these are more technologically advanced tools in production.

    (iii) Transfer of technology promotes the indigenous technological base and technical capacity. This is due to the process of imitating the knowledge and practicing it.


(iv) Transfer of technology promotes the indigenous technological base and technical capacity. This is due to the process of imitating the knowledge and practicing it.

 (v) Transfer of technology contributes much to the extraction of power such as solar energy instead of hydro-electric power and the use of biogas for cooking instead of using fire wood.

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