\
Form 5 Accounting Study Notes Form 6 Accounting Study Notes

ACCOUNTING – SHORT SUMMARY NOTES

THE 53RD MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF TANZANIA ANNUAL MEETING.

 

VENUE: MARIAN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (MARUCO)

 

DURATION: 17TH TO 22ND SEPTEMBER 2018

 

TOPIC: ACCOUNTING

 

PRESENTER: ZAKAYO H. MKUBURO

 

 

ACCOUNTS

  1. INTRODUCTION

Accounts refers to broad term that involves various concepts of accounting that people carry out in the process of making life easier through buying and selling commodities. Actually people cannot survive if they do not involve themselves in buying and selling for their families.

Why the topic is involved in Mathematics subject instead of being taught to students who take accounts only?

Firstly, mathematics as a compulsory subject tends to solve problems in the society that may some ways or another have no solutions. And it is believed that if students are taught and understand mathematics well, then they can perform other business more easily than those who have no idea in mathematics.

Secondly, accounts involve operations that are basically mathematics. For instance, adding and subtracting amounts can only be performed by a person who is having ability to make those operations clearly, otherwise the business entity will by then incur loss and finally closed simply because people are unable to operate on addition and subtraction.

Therefore, people who are involved in accounting disciplines are those whose abilities in mathematics are proved to be good and of course these people are doing even better in any business they may wish to perform daily.

On the other hand, the situation within the process of teaching and learning on the topic is somehow different because in many cases the topic is not taught to some schools having either no students who opt on the subject or the teachers are not competent enough to teach the topic.

Now, due to these reasons, the topic is either taught at the end of the year or not taught at all, and that make students concentrations on the topic become less compared to topics that are taught significantly earlier and with maximum revisions and at the end few students attempt the question and just few of them may get it right.

So if we teachers expect to get good results on the topic, we need to teach the topic confidently and encourage more students to engage in studying the topic because even if they will not take accounting subject for their further studies, it will be helpful to them in taking business activities in their respective areas and fields.

Though the topic seems to be difficult to teach and learn but I think that, if teachers are trained by those who have idea on the topic and students encouraged to learn it, we will find many students attempting the question on accounts and bringing positive results on the topic.

 

 

    

2.0    SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

By the end of the topic each student should be able to:

  1. Record business transactions in their respective ledgers by completing the double entry system
  2. Describe different types of ledger, construct ledgers and post the given entries into their respective ledgers
  3. Extract the trial balance, post entries from ledgers to the trial balance and check their balances and finally give the importance of trial balance in business account
  4. Construct trading, profit and loss account, ascertain gross and net profit/loss and interpret information from trading, profit and loss account
  5. Construct balance sheet, post entries in a balance sheet, interpret information from the balance sheet
  1. Definitions

    Accounting is the process of keeping and analyzing financial record of business transactions in the books of accounts. This process involves two types of transactions namely: Cash account and Credit account. In this session we are going to consider only the cash account according to the syllabus of accounts in ordinary level.

     

  2. DOUBLE ENTRY SYSTEM

    The double entry system is the situation that involves recording business transaction into two sides, the Debit side (Dr) and into the Credit side (Cr). The principle of double entry system states that: Every business transaction should be recorded twice. I.e. Every debit entry should have its corresponding credit entry.

    Note: The debit side (Dr) is the receiving side while Credit side (Cr) is the giving side

    1. Format of Cash account

The cash account is recorded in the book called CASH BOOK which is used to original entries for cash transactions. It contains two sides, the debit side (Dr) and the credit side (Cr). Each side is made up of four similar columns namely, date, particulars, folio and amount.

The format of cash account is given in the table below

 

NAME/TITLE OF A/C

Dr.                                         Cr.

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

    The above format is sometimes referred to as T – Account

 

 

Example.01

Record the following transactions in cash book of Mr. Juma

Feb 1:        Started business with capital in cash         sh. 15,000/=

Feb 2:        Purchased goods for cash             sh. 10,000/=

Feb 5:        Paid cash for transport             sh. 2,000/=

Feb 10:    Sold goods for cash                 sh. 12,000/=

Feb 18:    Received cash from Mr. Said              sh. 8,000/=

Feb 25:    Cash purchases                  sh. 14,000/=

Solution:

The transactions are recorded in the cash book of Mr. Juma as follows

Mr. JUMA CASH ACCOUNT

Dr

            Cr

Date

Particulars

    Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Feb 1

Capital

1

15,000/=

Feb 2

Purchases

2

10,000/=

Feb 10

Sales

4

12,000/=

Feb 5

Transport

3

2,000/=

Feb 18

Mr. Said

5

8,000/=

Feb 25

Purchases

2

14,000/=

        Feb 28

Balance

c/d

9,000/=

      35,000/=

      35,000/=

March 1

Balance

b/d

9,000/=

       

 

Example. 02

You are provided with business record of Mwembeyanga’s company. Record them into Mwembeyanga’s cash book then post them to ledgers and close.

On 1st February, Mwembeyanga started business with capital in cash of sh. 60,000/=

February 2,    Purchased goods for cash             sh. 50,000/=

February 3,    Paid cash for transport              sh. 10,000/=

February 10,    Sold goods for cash                  sh. 90,000/=

February 20,     Bought furniture for cash              sh. 30,000/=

February 28,    Paid cash for carriage                  sh. 5,000/=

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solution:

MWEMBEYANGA’S COMPANY CASH ACCOUNT (1)

Dr

           

Cr

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Feb 1

Capital

2

60,000/=

Feb 2

Purchases

3

50,000/=

Feb 10

Sales

5

90,000/=

Feb 3

Transport

4

10,000/=

        Feb 20

Furniture

6

30,000/=

        Feb 28

Carriage

7

5,000/=

               
        Feb 28

Balance

c/d

55,000/=

      150,000/=

      150,000/=

               
March 1

Balance

b/d

55,000/=

       

 

  1. Types of ledger

    A ledger is the principle book of account in which the double entry of all transactions are completed. The structure of the ledger is like that of the cash account. There are three types of ledger which are: general ledger, purchases ledger and sales ledger.

     

    The general ledger – Is the account which keeps all accounts of the business.

     

    Purchases ledger     – Is the ledger which keeps supplies accounts (credit balance).

     

    Sales ledger     – Is a ledger that keeps customers’ accounts (debit balance)

Recall example 02 above, the appropriate ledgers are as follows

CAPITAL ACCOUNT (2)

Dr.

           

Cr

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Feb 28

Balance

c/d

60,000/=

  Cash

  60,000

               
      60,000/=

      60,000/=

        March 1

Balance

b/d

60,000/=

 

PURCHASES ACCOUNT (3)

Dr.

           

Cr

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

  Cash

  50,000/=

Feb 28

Balance

c/d

50,000/=

               
      50,000/=

      50,000/=

March 1

Balance

b/d

50,000/=

       

 

TRANSPORT ACCOUNT (4)

Dr.

           

Cr

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

  Cash

  10,000/=

Feb 28

Balance

c/d

50,000/=

               
      10,000/=

      10,000/=

March 1

Balance

b/d

10,000/=

       

 

 

 

SALES ACCOUNT (5)

Dr.

           

Cr

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Feb 28

Balance

c/d

90,000/=

  Cash

  90,000/=

               
      90,000/=

      90,000/=

        March 1

Balance

b/d

90,000/=

 

FURNITURE ACCOUNT (6)

Dr.

           

Cr

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

  Cash

  30,000/=

Feb 28

Balance

c/d

30,000/=

               
      30,000/=

      30,000/=

March 1

Balance

b/d

30,000/=

       

 

CARRIAGE ACCOUNT (7)

Dr.

           

Cr

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

Date

Particulars

Folio

Amount

  Cash

  5,000/=

Feb 28

Balance

c/d

5,000/=

               
      5,000/=

      5,000/=

March 1

Balance

b/d

5,000/=

       

 

Exercise. 01

The following were transactions undertaken by Mr. Chilubya’s Account on January 2010.

January 1.    Started business with capital in cash                 sh. 500,000/=

January 2.    Bought office machines for cash                 sh. 150,000/=

January 5.    Purchased goods for cash                     sh. 200,000/=

January 12.    Paid cash for transport                     sh. 30,000/=

January 16.    Sold goods for cash                         sh. 150,000/=

January 18.     Received a cash loan from Ms. Asha                 sh. 100,000/=

January 22.    Sold goods for cash                         sh. 140,000/=

January 25.    Paid electricity bill in cash                     sh. 50,000/=

January 27.    Paid house rent in cash                     sh. 30,000/=

You are required to record the transactions in the cash book and then post them to their appropriate ledgers.

Exercise. 02

Record the transactions below for Ms. Nyandaro Business in the cash book, then post them to the ledgers and balance them.

January 1, 2007.     Started business with capital in cash ……………..sh. 600,000/=

January 2, 2007.    Bought goods for cash ……………………………sh. 50,000/=

January 2, 2007.    Paid transport charges …………………………….sh. 5,000/=

January 3, 2007.    Bought parking materials for cash ………………..sh. 10,000/=

January 4, 2007.    Sold goods for cash ……………………………….sh. 30,000/=

January 5, 2007.    Sold goods for cash ……………………………….sh. 10,000/=

January 6, 2007.    Purchased goods for cash …………………………sh. 15,000/=

January 8, 2007.    Paid wages …………………………………………sh. 3,800/=

January 10, 2007.    Cash sales…………………………………………..sh. 20,000/=

January 12, 2007.    Cash purchases……………………………………..sh. 15,000/=

January 15, 2007.    Cash sales…………………………………………..sh. 25,000/=

January 20, 2007.    Paid rent…………………………………………….sh. 5,000/=

  1. Trial balance

A trial balance is a list of balances extracted from the cash book and the ledger to check mathematical accuracy of entries.

The trial balance is used as

  • The checklist of mathematics balances in the cash book and the ledger
  • The mathematical correctness in the cash book and the ledger
  • It gives the total amount in the debit side and credit side
  • It enables business owners to review the entries when the Dr and Cr do not balance

The format of trial balance is given as follows


(NAME)……TRIAL BALANCE AS AT (TIME)………

S/NO

PARTICULARS

FOLIO

DR

CR

         
         

 

Example. 01

From example 02 of Mwembeyanga’s account above, the trial balance can be extracted as follows:

MWEMBEYANGA’S TRIAL BALANCE AS AT 31 MARCH

S/NO

PARTICULARS

FOLIO

DR

CR

1.

Cash

1

55,000/=

2.

Capital

2

60,000/=

3.

Purchases

3

50,000/=

4.

Transport

4

10,000/=

5.

Sales

5

90,000/=

6.

Furniture

6

30,000/=

7.

Carriage

7

5,000/=

         
         
         
  Total

  150,000/=

150,000/=

 

Note: From the trial balance above, it can be clearly observed that both Dr and Cr have 150,000/= in their total and for that case, the transactions were correctly recorded

  1. FINAL ACCOUNTS

     

    1. Trading, profit and loss accounts

Trading, Profit and loss accounts are accounts prepared at the end of financial period to ascertain the gross profit or loss. The gross profit is obtained when there is excess of sales over the cost of goods sold while the gross loss is obtained when there is a deficit of sales over the cost of goods sold. And mathematically they can be obtained as follows:

Gross Profit     =    Sales – Cost of goods sold

Gross Loss     =    Cost of goods sold – Sales

The format for trading account

Particulars

Amount

Amount

Particulars

Amount

Amount

Opening stock

  xxx

Sales

xxxx

 
Purchases

xxx

  Less: return inward

xx

 
Less: return outward

xx

  Net sales

  xxxx

  xxx

       
Add: carriage inward

xx

xxx

   
Cost of goods available for sale(cogas)

  xxx

   
Less: closing stock

  xx

   
Cost of goods sold

  xxx

   
         
Gross profit c/d

  xx

   
    xxxx

    xxxx

      Gross profit b/d

  xx

 

The format for profit and loss account

Particulars

Amount

Particulars

Amount

All expenses will be

  Gross profit b/d

xx

written under this

  Any received

xxx

Section (e.g.)

  Will be written

 
Transport

xxx

Under this section

 
Advertising

xxx

   
       
Net Profit

xx

   
  xxxx

  xxxx

 

When trading, profit and loss account are combined together, its format will be as follows

TITLE (NAME)……TRADING AND PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT AS AT (TIME)………

Particulars

Amount

Amount

Particulars

Amount

Amount

Opening stock

  xxx

Sales

xxxx

 
Purchases

xxx

  Less: return inward

xx

 
Less: return outward

xx

  Net sales

  xxxx

  xxx

       
Add: carriage inward

xx

xxx

   
Cost of goods available for sale(cogas)

  xxx

   
Less: closing stock

  xx

   
Cost of goods sold

  xxx

   
         
Gross profit c/d

  xx

   
    xxxx

    xxxx

           
      Gross profit b/d

  xx

Expenses

         
e.g.

    Any received

  xxxx

Rent

  xxx

     
Office expenses

  xxx

   
Carriage

  xxx

   
         
Net Profit

  xxx

   
    xxxx

    xxxx

 

Example. 01

Use the balances given below to prepare the trading and profit and loss account of Mr. Msemakweli for the year ended 30th June 2009.

Open stock -sh. 150,000/=, Closing stock -sh. 10,000/=, Salaries –sh. 50,000/=,Carriage inward –sh. 12,000/=, Carriage outward –sh. 20,000/=, sales return –sh. 8,000/=, purchases return –sh. 11,000/=, discount on sales –sh. 6,000/=, discount on purchases –sh. 30,000/=, purchases –sh. 200,000/=, sales –sh. 310,000/=, rent –sh. 13,000/=, office expenses –sh. 22,000/=, commission received –sh. 10,000/= and bad debts –sh. 27,000/=.

Solution:

MR MSEMAKWELI TRADING AND PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT AS AT 30th JUNE 2009

Particulars

Amount

Amount

Particulars

Amount

Amount

Opening stock

  50,000/=

Sales

370,000/=

 
Purchases

200,000/=

  Less: return in

8,000/=

 
Less: return on purchases

11,000/=

      362,000/=

  189,000/=

       
Add: carriage inward

12,000/=

201,000/=

   
Cost of goods available for sale (COGAS)

 

 

251,000/=

   
Less: closing stock

  10,000/=

   
Cost of goods sold (COGS)

 

 

241,000/=

   
Gross profit c/d

  121,000/=

   
    362,000/=

    362,000/=

Salaries

  5,000/=

Gross profit b/d

  121,000/=

Carriage out

  20,000/=

Discount received

  30,000/=

Discount allowed

  6,000/=

Commission received

  10,000/=

Rent

  13,000/=

     
Office expenses

  22,000/=

   
Bad – debts

  27,000/=

   
Net profit

  68,000/=

   
    161,000/=

    161,000/=

 

  1. Interpretation of Trading and profit and loss accounts

The trading and profit and loss account can be interpreted as follows:

  1. Gross profit         =    Net Sales – Cost of goods sold(This occurs when income is greater than the expenses and therefore the business will generate profit)
  2. Gross loss         =     Cost of goods sold – Net Sales (This occurs when income/sales is less than the expenses and therefore the business will generate loss)
  3. Net profit             =    Gross profit – Expenses (i.e. income is greater than expenses)
  4. Net loss            =    Expenses – Gross profit (i.e. income is less than expenses)
  5. Cost of goods sold     =    Opening stock + Net purchases
  6. Net purchases        =    Purchases + carriage inward +Direct wages – return outwards
  7. Average stock        =     or

Note: When income is greater than expenses the business will generate Net profit but when the income is less than the expenses, the business will generate Net loss.

Example. 02

You are provided with the following transactions

Sales for 2009……………………………..sh. 51,000/=

Stock at start………………………………sh. 9,000/=

Purchases …………………………………sh. 34,500/=

Stock at end ………………………………sh. 6,500/=

Return on sales ……………………………sh. 1,000/=

Return on purchases ……………………….sh. 1,500/=

From the above information, calculate:

  1. Net sales
  2. Average stock
  3. Net purchases
  4. Cost of goods sold

Solution:

  1. Net sales     =    Sales – Return on sales(return inwards)

    =    51,000/= – 1,000/=

    =    50,000/=

Net sales is 50,000/=

  1. Average stock         =    

    =    

    =    

    =    7,750/=

  1. Net purchases        =    Purchases + carriage inward +Direct wages – return outwards

    =    34,500/= +0 +0 – 1,500/=

        =    33,000/=

  1. Cost of goods sold    =    Opening stock + Net purchases

    =    9,000/= + 33,000/=

    =    42,000/=.

 

Exercise. 03.

The following trial balance was extracted from the businessman books’ of 

Chericho Ramaji, at 31st December 2006.

1. Capital 830,000/= 2.Purchases 1,200,000/= 3. Sales 1,750,000/= 4. Return inwards 55,000/= 5.Return outwards 64,000/= 6. Plant and machine 240,000/=

7. Furniture and fittings 75,000/= 8. Sundry debtors 137,000/=

9. Sundry creditors 86,000/= 10. Wages 228,000/= 11.Bad debts 36,000/=

12. Discount received 27,000/= 13. Opening stock 500,000/=

14. Insurance 16,000/= 15. Commission receivable 43,000/=

16. Trade expenses 22,000/= 17. Cash in hand 17,000/=

18. Cash at bank 274,000 Total 2,800,000

Prepare Trading and Profit and Loss account for the year ended 31st December 2006

 

Exercise. 04

Prepare trading and profit and loss account of ABC Traders for the year ended 31st December 2010.

Stock at start……………………sh. 230 000/=

Purchases……………………….sh. 480,000/=

Sales …………………………….sh. 720,000/=

Carriage inwards ……………….sh. 72,000/=

Returns inwards ………………..sh. 112,000/=

Returns outwards ………………sh. 105,000/=

Wages and salaries …………….sh. 60,000/=

Rent …………………………….sh. 20,000/=

Insurance ……………………….sh. 10,000/=

Discount allowed ………………sh. 10,000/=

Transport ………………………sh. 5,000/=

Discount received ……………..sh. 70,000/=

Commission received …………sh. 109,000/=

Office expenses ……………….sh. 10,000/=

Advertisement …………………sh. 5,000/=

Closing stock …………………sh. 190,000/=

 

  1. Balance sheet

A balance sheet is a statement prepared at the end of financial period normally one year, to show the financial position of the business in terms of Assets and Liabilities.

Assets are properties/possessions owned by the business. They consist of current and fixed assets.

Current assets are those properties that can easily be converted into cash. Examples of current assets include, stock, debtors, cash at bank, cash in hand etc.

Fixed assets are those properties that cannot easily be converted into cash. Examples of fixed assets include, Furniture, fixture and fitting, motorcars, land, buildings etc.

Liabilities are claims against business assets. They are debts owed by the business. Liabilities consist of Current/short term liabilities and long term liabilities.

Short term liabilities are those debts that are to be paid back within a short period of time, normally not more than one year of trading period. Example include Creditors, bank overdraft etc.

Long term liabilities are debts to be repaid within a long period of trading period normally more than one year.

The structure for a balance sheet can be seen as shown below,

TITLE (NAME) …………BALANCE SHEET AS AT (TIME)………………………

LIABILITIES

/* ]]> */