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English Study Notes Form 1 English Study Notes Msomi Maktaba All Notes

LITERATURE FORM 1 – LISTENING TO AND UNDERSTANDING SIMPLE TEXTS ABOUT A VARIETY OF EVENTS AND SITUATION

Graduation day 

The morning was full of drumbeats, laughter and everybody was happy. It was a graduation day for standard seven leavers. All students looked very smart including Kadoka who was always dirty. In the morning we were given a time table showing what would happen through the day. The following is the graduation time table.

 
 

GRADUATION TIME TABLE www.msomimaktaba.com 

VOCABULARY 

Graduation Р       a party of student who has finished school

Activities     Р       work

Arrange       Р       plan  

e.g. The teacher said that we should arrange our chair properly

Imagine       Р       think of it

                             Example: Imagine a female present in Tanzania

  
 

Exercise  

Make two sentences using the words; Graduation and activities

  1. …………………..
  2. ………………….

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STRUCTURE. 

Prepositions of Time ¬†“At” and “in”

Examples 

  1. The party started at 8:00
  2. The guest of honor arrived at 12:00
  3. We ate lunch in the evening
  4. The sleep at right
  5. We arrived at school in the morning

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Exercise  

White a composition at your first day at school

 
 

MY FIRST DAY AT SECONDARY SCHOOL 

My name is Evelyn Livoga, my father’s name is Mr. Livoga and my mother’s name is Mrs.

Grace Livoga. I am fifteen years old. I am black in colour and tall, thin in size.

          My first day at secondary school was exciting. I was very excited. When I arrived at school saw some of my friends who come to me and helped me with my luggage to the Head Mistress office for checkup. I waved by to my parents and they gave me a hug.

          When I went to the office they checked my luggage and they showed me the way to the dormitory. I went to the dormitory hurriedly and keep my luggage. Then I took bath and I went to class.

          When I reached to the class I made my friends and they gave me a lot of loving company. After a half an hour the bell rang and everybody followed the bell.

          All the teachers come in front of us and started introducing themselves and lastly the Head Mistress introduced herself. Her name is Sis. Magreth.

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† When it reached seven O’clock we had our first dinner at this precious school called St. Joseph Millennium Secondary School. After one and half hour we had our evening prayers and we went to our dormitory to sleep, since then our patron come and showed everybody her room.

          After that I prepared my bed and I have my bed ready to sleep. My room where very charming and the patron was very good. I pray for myself and I slept. I hope my road of success will be successful at the end.

  
 

SPORT DAY 

(Story book about sports example football)

Vocabulary

  1. Suddenly    Р       Quickly
  2. Spectator    Р       People who are watching something
  3. Exciting      Р       something you enjoy so much
  4. Attract         Р       make people like to see something

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EXERCISE 

Make two sentences using the words spectators and Exciting

(i) ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ————————– (ii) ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†————————–

 
 

 
 

AN ACCIDENT 

(Story/texts book about accident)

 
 

VOCABLARY 

Tough         Р       difficult, hard

Restless       Р       worried

Obviously    Р       very true

No more ¬† ¬† ¬†‚Äď ¬† ¬† ¬† dead

 
 

EXERCISE 

Make two sentences using the words Restless and No more

(i) ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ————— (ii) ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†—————

 
 

Structures 

Personal Pronouns 

Words like I, we, he, she, ect. Are called Personal Pronouns. They are divided into singular and plural

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Structures 

NOUN: Is the naming word of people, places or things.

Examples: Ally, Jack, Tanzania, Kariakoo, Arusha.

 
 

EXERCISE 

1.    Write down five nouns to each of the following

  1. Animals.
  2. Building
  3. Lakes
  4. Mountains

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             Singular and plural 

  1. Sheep                   Р       sheep
  2. Halves         Р       half
  3. Wolves         Р       wolf (iv)         Feet             Р       foot
  4. Armies        Р       army
  5. Inches         Р       inch
  6. Loaves         Р       loaf
  7. Wives          Р       wife  

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Structure 

Singular and Plural 

  1. Plural Nouns can be formed by

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Adding “s” to the singular Nouns.

 
 

Example:¬†Circle ‚Äď Circles

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† Day ‚Äď days

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† Roof ‚Äď roofs

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† Tutor ‚Äď tutors

 
 

  1. Changing “y” to ‚Äď ies

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Example 

Army           Р       armies

Aunty          Р       aunties

Lady            Р       ladies

Factory        Р       factories

 
 

Note: in nouns ending with “y” do not change”y” if it is preceded by a vowel

Example: toy ‚Äď toys so simply add (“es”) but if “y” is preceded by a consonant change “y” in to “I” and then add “-es”

Example: fly ‚Äď flies

 
 

  1. Add “es” to singular Nouns ending in “s”, “ss”, “x”, “z”, “ch”, “sh” and “o”

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Example:  

Match     Р       matches

Gas        Р       gases

Princess Р       princesses

Tax         Р       taxes

Hero       Р       heroes

 
 

  1. Changing “f” or “fe” in singular Nouns to “-ve”

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Example: 

Calf   Р       calves

Half   Р       halves

Knife Р       knives

Life    Р       lives

Thief  Р       thieves

 
 

 
 

Note:  seven Nouns change their vowels 

Man            Р       men

Foot            Р       feet

Goose                   Р       geese

Woman       Р       women

Tooth          Р       teeth

Louse          Р       lice

Mouse         Р       mice

 
 

Pronoun and verbs 

Is                 Р       are

Was             Р       were

He/she/it   Р       they

Him             Р       them

I                   Р       we

That            Р       those

This             Р       these

My               Р       our    

Mine            Р       ours

His/hers     Р       theirs

Note: Noun:

Irregular Plurals: Noun with the hissing sound

i.e      -sh

          -ch

           -x      to be in plural add -es

           -z

 
 

EXERCISE 

Write the plural of the following noun (i)            box

  1. hero
  2. knife
  3. leaf
  4. church
  5. inch
  6. fly

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Exercise  

Make the following sentences plural (Remember to change the pronouns as well)

Example: 

That chair is broken

Those chairs are broken

  1. That baby is sick
  2. He broke his foot
  3. I am a good student
  4. That thief has a knife
  5. That boy has a phone

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HOW TO ASK QUESTION 

There are many ways of asking questions you can ask a question using the word “is” – ¬† ¬† ¬†Is she late?

  • Is she in this class?
  • Is she sick?

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Asking questions using “are” – ¬† ¬† ¬†Are they late?

  • Are they in this class?
  • Are they sick?

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Asking questions using “was” – ¬† ¬† ¬†Was she late?

  • Was she in this class?
  • Was she sick?

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Asking questions using “were” – ¬† ¬† ¬†Were they late?

  • Were they in this class?
  • Were they sick?

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Exercise 

Fill in is, was, are, were in the right space

  1. ________they punished yesterday?
  2. ________they doing maths now?
  3. ________ She suffering from malaria?
  4. _____ We going home now?

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LISTENING TO DICTATIONS 

  1. Tail /tale
  2. Glow /grow
  3. Sun / son
  4. Bare / bear
  5. Hair / hare/ heir
  6. Sea / see
  7. Beep / bip
  8. Deep/ dip
  9. Raise / rise
  10. Lake / like

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Structure 

PROPER AND COMMON NOUNS 

(a)  Proper Nouns:  

A single reference. Example Mt. Kilimanjaro refers to one particular mountain. We normally use capital letters for the first letter of a proper Noun.

Example: Kibile and Riwa are Proper Nouns.

               Chair and bus are Common Nouns.

(b)  Common Nouns: 

Are ordinary groups of names of persons and things such as child, gentle man students, cow, city, chair etc. There is no uniqueness in common Nouns.

For, Example, if one says “a city” it can be any city. It is different from Dar es Salaam or

Kilimanjaro which is the only city Called so. We do not capital letters for the first letter of a common Noun.

The Differences between Proper and common Nouns 

Proper Nouns differ from common Nouns in three ways:

  1. They are not usually used with articles we cannot say for example:

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  • A London
  • The John
  • A Nairobi

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  1. Proper Nouns do not usually allow plurals  

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Examples: 

  • Kilimanjaros ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†Two Aminas
  • Musomas

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Note: You must use articles with common Noun (unless they are uncountable)

For example: 

Book is black,

But you can say a book is black

EXERCISE 

Write the following sentences correctly

  1. I went to a Arusha last week
  2. Please bring me table (c)  Are you a Rose?

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(d)  Elephant is a big animal

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

GIVING DIRECTIONS  

  The main purpose of this topic is to give compass direction mainly four cardinal points          i.e. East, West, North, South

 
 

The compass 

The compass is instrument for find direction. It has magnetized needle which sits on a face. The face has different directions drawn on it.The needle always points to the magnetic north.The compass sometimes called Magnetic compass.

 
 

 Common words include; left, right, straight, crossing, opposite, adjacent, behind, in front of , next to, near by

 
 

Asking for and giving directions

Rehema       :         Excuse me could you tell me the way to the pharmacy?

Suzy ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† : ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† yes, it’s that the way, just go straight away after two houses ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†turn left, it’s on the corner opposite the post office.

Rehema ¬† ¬† ¬† : ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† Thanks, I’ have only been in town for a few days, so I really ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†don’t know my way around yet

Suzy           :         Oh! I know how you feel. I was born in this town so I know                              where everything is.

  • Interrogative /ways to ask or show directions
  • Can you direct me to ‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ ¬†Response direction
  • Turn left/ right go straight to ‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ at Zebra crossing take a bus to‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ‚Ķ. On your left follow Hanang street then keep right.

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 Exercise  

Look at the Map below. Imaging your one of the children asking for the direction.Practice asking for and giving directions to:

 
 

1 The mosque

  1. The dispensary
  2. The market
  3. The school

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5.The agriculture office

 
 

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Locating places 

Discuss the location of the school  

             
 

-Where the school situated in Tanzania?(north,south, East, west or central) -Is it in town or in the countryside ?

-Are there any houses,shops or offices nearby?

– How many roads lead to the school?

-Do the roads leading to your school have name?

 
 

 
 

Structure

Comparatives and superlatives

There are three main ways of making comparisons;

  1. AS + ORDINARY FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE OR ADVERBS + AS

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E.g His essay is as long as mine  

       
 

     This book is as interesting as were read last Monday

  1. COMPARATIVE   FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB +THAN

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         E.g That house is bigger than mine  

               They did the test more carefully than we did

  1. LESS + ORDINARY FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB + THAN

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          E.g  The tail of the ship is less longer than that dog

                 This news is less interesting than one I read last weekend  There are three main pattern of making superlative .

i.  definite article + superlative form of the adjective  or adverb            E.g The Giraffe is the tallest of all animals  ii.  One of +definite article + superlative form of adjective  

          E.g This novel is one of the most interesting we have ever read  iii.  Definite article + least + ordinary form of Adjective or Adverb            E.g All the book we have read this one is the least interesting    

 
 

      Words used to compare things are called COMPARATIVES

Examples: Big  bigger  biggest

Note:

  1. er must go with than

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Example: An Elephant is the biggest animal

¬† ¬†If a word cannot take ‚Äďest use most ¬† ¬†

Example: Suzy is more beautiful than Rhoda

  1. est must go with the

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Example: An elephant is the biggest animal

  1. If a word cannot take ‚Äďest use most

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Example: Suzy is the most beautiful girl in the class

Exercise 

Change the words in the brackets and write the whole sentence correctly!

  1. An apple is (small) a pumpkin
  2. Air planes are (fast) than cars
  3. A snail is (slow) a snake
  4. James is (tall) me
  5. Miss Tanzania is (beautiful) my sister

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